thesis.footnotes Footnotes:

1. For an early and extensive biography of Alexander see Grabow, S. Christopher Alexander...

2. Alexander, C. The Nature of Order...

3. Tom Killian, Architect, Progressive Architecture August 1988 , Views, p. 11.

4. Fisher, Thomas, Ed. "The Real Meaning of Architecture" Progressive Architecture July 1991 pp. 100-107 and Alexander, Christopher "Perspectives: Manifesto 1991" Progressive Architecture July 1991 pp. 108-112.

5. Twombly, R. Power and Style pp. 6-9.

6. HRH The Prince of Wales A Vision of Britain p. 7.

7. Grabow, S. Christopher Alexander... throughout.

8. Kuhn, T. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

9. Tarnas, R. The Passion of the Western Mind p. 440.

10. Luce, J.V. An Introduction ...… p. 99.

English translations of the Latin vary: firmitatis utilitatis venustatis from Venus: loveliness, comeliness, charm, grace, beauty, elegance, attractiveness.

Alberti, L. On The Art of Building... Book 6, Part 2.

Cook and Wedderburn, The Works of John Ruskin

Ruskin, J. The Seven Lamps...p. 94.

Ibid. p. 97.

Tarnas, R. The Passion… pp. 389-391.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Prologue, p.8.

Blake, Peter God’s Own Junkyard (1964, 1979) Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York.

Jacobs, J. The Death... p. 4.

Kunstler, J. The Geography of Nowhere p. 10.

The Prince of Wales A Vision of Britain

See Part II of this essay, Sturton-by-Stow vs. Viterbo, for an exploration of New Urbanist theory and practise.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Chapter 1, p. 2.

See Grabow, S. Christopher Alexander… pp. 27-35 for an account of Alexander’s schooling at Cambridge.

Grabow, S. Christopher Alexander... p. 30.

Alexander, Notes

Ibid. p. 32.

Grabow, S. Christopher Alexander… pp. 64-65.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Preface, p. 2.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 3, Chapter 23, p. 43.

In a recent magazine article Alexander was referred to as a ‘messianic crank’. (Kohn W. (Summer 2002) The Lost Prophet of Architecture The Wilson Quarterly, Volume XXVI, No 3, pp. 26-34) This author has personally heard derisive comments concerning the ‘biblical’ character of the The Timeless Way of Building and A Pattern Language, both in reference to it’s content and to the physical properties of the book.

Oxford English Dictionary: Old High German – heil - health, happiness, good luck.

Alexander, C. Timeless Way… p. 31. Alexander goes through a litany of words which might be used to describe the phenomenon he is after but finds limitation in each word and ultimately settles on ‘the quality without a name’ as the best description. However, in The Nature of Order, he does use ‘wholeness’ extensively, along with other words like ‘alive’.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Chapter 8, p. 2.

Huxley, Aldous The Perennial … p. 21.

Taoism translates as ‘the way" and one could retitle The Timeless Way of Building as ‘The Taoist Way of Building.’

Palmer, M. (Ed) The Book of Chuang Tzu

Bancroft, A. Zen... p. 9.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order, Book 2, Chaper 14, p. 105.

Suzuki, S. Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind p. 29.

Much of my understanding of Islam has come from listening to lectures by Khaled Azzam Director of The Visual Islamic and Traditional Arts department of the Prince’s Foundation and from conversations I have had with him.

Nasr, S. Islamic Art... p.57

Nasr, S. Islamic Art... p.185.

Nasr, S. Islamic Art... p.185.

Nasr, S. Islamic Art... p.187.

Alexander, C. A Foreshadowing… p. 15.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 4, Chapter 26, p. 21.

Tarnas, R. The Passion of... pp. 326-7.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 4, Chapter 26, p. 27.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Preface, p. 3.

See particularly, Tarnas, R. The Passion of... pp. 375-378.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Bk. 1, Preface, p. 12

Koyre, A. From the Closed... p. 150.

McHarg, p.197. While it is not the place of this essay to delve into the various historical intricacies of the modern cosmological view, it is interesting to note that there are those that place the origins of modern dualogy with the ancient Greeks, such as Ash: "The change in question began when our culture moved from oral to the written. At all events, it is hard to see what could be more conducive than this to the inexorable atomisation of Western society and its loss of "the commons": or our common ground. Ultimately, it is to the alphabet we owe our present-day cult of the individual and the loss of community."

Bohm, D. Wholeness... p. 3.

Ibid. p. 7.

Capra, F. The Web of Life p. 6.

Lovelock, J. Gaia

Lotus International, Debate pp. 60-68.

Lecture by Christopher Day, at The Prince of Wales’s Institute of Architecture, 13 March, 1998.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Prologue, p. 8.

Ibid. Book 1, Prologue, pp. 8-9.

Alexander, C. Notes... p. 131.

Grabow, S. Christopher Alexander… pp. 46-51.

Alexander, C. The Timeless Way... p. 100.

Hillier and Hanson The Social Logic of ... p. xi.

Ibid. p. 2.

Ibid. p. xi.

King, I. Christopher Alexander and... p. 106.

Ibid. pp. 107-8.

Alexander quoted in Grabow, S. Christopher Alexander ... p. 201.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Chapter 3, p. 6.

Ibid. p. 8.

See Brand, S. How Buildings Learn for a fascinating investigation of the way architecture changes over time. In it he cites Alexander as a major influence.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Chapter 4, p. 9.

Ibid. Book 1, Chapter 5, p. 2.

Ibid. Book 1, Chapter 6, pp. 2-3.

Gleick, J Chaos... p. 94.

Ibid. pp. 43-44.

Alexander, C. Notes... p. 134.

Alexander, C. The Timeless Way... p. 365.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 2, Chapter 11, pp. 51-52.

Bohm, D. Wholeness... p. 11.

Gert Eilenberger, a German physicist, quoted in Gleick, J. Chaos... p. 117.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 2, Chapter 11, p. 33.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 2, Chapter 13, pp. 86-88.

Day, C. Places of the Soul p. 106.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 2, Chapter 14, p. 104.

Ibid. pp. 110-111.

Ibid. Chapter 17, p. 227.

Ibid. Chapter 14, pp. 123-125.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 2, Chapter 19, p. 353.

Johnson, R. The Fisher King ... p. 16.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order

Ibid. Book 4, Chapter 32, p. 208.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 2, Chapter 19, p. 361.

De Laszlo, V. (Ed) The Basic Writings of C.G. Jung pp. 262-263.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order, Book 1, Chapter 8, p. 5.

Ibid. Book 1, Chaper 8, p. 32.

Lutyens, M. The Krishnamurti Reader p. 51.

Ibid.

Huxley, A. The Perennial Philosophy p. 179.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order, Book 4, Conclusion, p. 272.

Ibid.

Ibid. Book 4, Chapter 31, p. 196.

Alexander related these sentiments directly to this author during an interview in March of 1998 in Chichester, England.

First Contract for West Dean Visitors Center (sic) dated 7th February 1994. All documents related to the West Dean Visitor Centre in this essay were obtained by permission from John Hewitt's archives, unless otherwise noted.

Ibid.

Management Agreement for the Construction of West Dean Gardens Visitors' Centre dated August 1994 and signed by Alexander and Simon Ward, representative of The Edward James Foundation.

Ibid. Article 5.

Ibid.

Sub contract Agreement for the Construction of West Dean Gardens - Visitor's Centre. Craftsman Agreement for 'Demolition' , (undated) Article 8, p. 3.

Ibid. Article 5, p. 3.

Management Agreement... Article 4, p. 3.

Garreau. J. Edge City p. 338.

For an example of a very similar contract by Alexander and C.E.S. see Alexander, et al. The Mary Rose Museum (1995) Oxford University Press: Oxford, England and New York.

Management Agreement ... Article 4, p. 3.

CONSTRUCTION ACCOUNT: FINAL ACCOUNT and SUMMARY OF CONSTRUCTION COST dated October 12 1996.

Unpublished letter from Alexander 'To the students of the graduate class,' dated January 12, 1994.

Two students from Portsmouth University however, were able to step in as apprentices during the actual construction of the building.

Unpublished document, dated June 2, 1994.

The Mexicali project involved the building of low-income housing with user participation and the combination of concrete block/ poured in place concrete shell construction. This project is fully documented in Alexander, Davis, et al, The Production of Houses (1982) Oxford University Press: New York.

Grabow, S. pp. 162-63.

Unpublished document by Alexander, C. Two Aspects of the West Dean Visitor's Centre dated June 3, 1994

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order Book 1, Chapter 5, pp. 3-8.

Ibid. pp. 9-15.

Ibid. pp. 16-22.

This plan drawn by the author based on original construction documents and incorporating changes made during construction.

Ibid. pp. 23-30.

Ibid. pp. 31-36

Ibid. Book 3, Chapter 23, Part 6 , p. 204.

Ibid. Book 1, Chapter 5, pp. 37-43.

Ibid. pp. 44-52.

Ibid. pp. 53-57.

Ibid. pp. 58-62.

Ibid. pp. 63-67.

Ibid. pp. 68-75

Ibid. p. 68.

Ibid. pp. 76-79.

Ibid. pp. 80-83.

Ibid. pp. 84-87.

Ibid. pp. 88-93.

Charter of the New Urbanism: http://www.cnu.org/aboutcnu/ website for the Congress of New Urbanism.

Ibid. http://www.cnu.org/resources/

Katz, P. The New Urbanism... p. 223.

Krier, L. Architecture: Choice or Fate

Katz, P. The New Urbanism... p. 221.

Tarnas, R. The Passion of... p. 434.

Saunders, W. Architectural Record p. 94.

Rilke, Rainer Maria Letters To A Young Poet

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Mike Brady was the fictional father, depicted in a popular 70's television show, of a large idyllic family living the suburban dream in America. He was an architect.

For a more thorough biography of Alexander see Grabow, Stephen Christopher Alexander: The Search for a New Paradigm in Architecture (1983) Oriel Press: Stocksfield, England.

Suzuki, Shunryu Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind (1970) Weatherhill: New York and Tokyo.

Wurman, Richard Saul What Will Be Has Always Been: The Words of Louis I. Kahn (1986) Rizzoli International: New York.

Huxley, Aldous The Perennial Philosophy (1944) Harper and Row: New York.

See Tarnas, Richard The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View (1991) Ballantine Books: New York.

Lovelock, James Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (1979) Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Barks, Coleman The Essential Rumi (1997) Castle Books: Edison, New Jersey.

The massive industrial mobilization of W.W.II was extended after the war into the heavy mass production of housing and building in general. This, coupled with cultural changes such as increased individualism and less institutional authority (i.e. the Church), goes someway toward explaining why there is such a sharp change in architecture coinciding with W.W.II. I'm sure there are more complex explanations which could and should be explored.

Frohm, Erich The Art of Loving (1956) Harper and Row: New York, New York. pp. 6-7

Ibid. p. 47.

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It should be noted that while this critique has used the patterns presented in APL as a sort of check list for critique, in reality a language of patterns, as noted in the Introduction of APL are not so easy to separate as individual 'things' and instead merge together and overlap in complex ways. The author has attempted to account for this by a rough grouping of like patterns which deal with similar issues. The reader is referred to APL for a more complete understanding of the interrelating of patterns.

Alexander, et al. A Pattern Language pp. 468-72.

Ibid. pp. 485-87.

Ibid. pp. 565-68.

Ibid. pp. 473-76.

Ibid. pp. 477-79.

Ibid. pp. 503-06.

Ibid. pp. 508-12.

Powers, Alan The Alexander technique Perspectives August/September 1996, pp. 44-47.

Alexander, et al. A Pattern Language pp. 513-16.

Ibid. pp. 757-60.

Ibid. pp. 752-56.

Ibid. pp. 761-63.

Ibid. pp. 524-30.

Ibid. pp. 535-38.

Ibid. pp. 746-51.

Ibid. pp. 644-46.

Ibid. pp. 609-13.

Ibid. pp. 540-44.

Ibid. pp. 548-52.

Alexander,C. The Nature of Order Book Three, p. 25.

Alexander, et al. A Pattern Language, pp. 557-60.

Ibid. pp. 569-74.

The knowledge that the roof structure is made from precious heavy timbers of oak, but are in no way exploited visually, makes this violation all the more painful.

Alexander, et al. A Pattern Language, pp. 622-26

Ibid. pp. 627-31.

Ibid. pp. 637-43.

Ibid. pp. 705-6.

Ibid. pp. 833-37.

Ibid. pp. 889-92.

Ibid. pp. 876-82.

Ibid. pp. 883-88

Ibid. pp. 893-96.

Ibid. pp. 908-12.

Ibid. pp. 924-26.

Ibid. pp. 940-45.

Ibid. pp. 970-77.

Ibid. pp. 946-54.

In fact, if the word 'ecological' is understood in its most fundamental of meanings then West Dean could be considered very ecologically sensitive. Beyond simply a narrow understanding of the material realm.

Alexander, et al. A Pattern Language pp. 962-68.

Ibid. pp. 1006-8.

Ibid. pp. 1009-11.

Ibid. pp. 1018-22.

Ibid. pp. 1046-49.

Ibid. pp. 1050-52.

Ibid. pp. 1053-55.

Ibid. pp. 1068-72.

Ibid. pp. 1100-102.

Ibid. pp. 1108-11.

Ibid. pp. 1118-20.

Ibid. pp. 1124-27.

Ibid. pp. 1132-34.

Ibid. pp. 1135-36.

Ibid. pp. 1138-40.

Ibid. pp. 1141-44.

Ibid. pp. 1146-52.

Ibid. pp. 1153-56.

Ibid. pp. 1157-59.

Ibid. pp. 1160-63.